Tag Archives: Texas Educators Vote

Teach the Vote’s Week in Review: Oct. 4, 2019

It’s been a busy week for the ATPE Governmental Relations team. Here’s a look at our lobbyists’ latest reporting for Teach the Vote:


Today, the State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC) met in Austin to discuss several items that would implement legislation passed by the 86th legislature earlier this year. These include the repeal of the Master Teacher certificate as required by House Bill 3, regulations pertaining to educator misconduct and reporting requirements, and new rules to allow military spouses licensed in other states to teach in Texas. ATPE Lobbyist Andrea Chevalier submitted written testimony to encourage the board to explore options for Master Teacher certificate holders, so that they can maintain their current teaching assignments once their certificates expire. ATPE also testified in support of expanded criteria for considering “good cause” in determining potential sanctions against educators who abandon their contracts. Additionally, ATPE joined the board in mourning the loss of board member Dr. Rex Peebles, who passed away last week. Watch our blog here on Teach the Vote early next week for a full recap of the meeting.


ELECTION UPDATE: In this week’s election roundup post from ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins, read the latest announcements on the “who, what, and where” of various contested races on the 2020 ballot, including a retirement announcement from a member of the State Board of Education. Check out the full post here. Also, don’t forget to register by Monday, Oct. 7, if you want to vote in the Nov. 5 election. Voters statewide will be considering proposed constitutional amendments that day, and a few districts have an opportunity to elect new state representatives.

On our Teach the Vote blog this week, we’re also taking a closer look at the special election for House District 28 in the western suburbs of Houston. ATPE’s Wiggins shares information about the education stances of the candidates and why the race is drawing widespread attention. Check it out here.


ATPE continues its Teach the Vote blog series, “New School Year, New Laws,” with a post this week on professional responsibilities. ATPE Lobbyist Andrea Chevalier highlights bills passed in 2019 that relate to educator misconduct and new records retention requirements that could affect educators who store school-related information on their personal cell phones or other devices. Read the latest post in the series here.


This week’s latest video from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) in its “HB 3 in 30” series offers an explanation of the state’s new teacher incentive allotment. The incentive pay plan was one of the most hotly debated aspects of the school finance bill when it moved through the legislative process earlier this year. After ATPE and other stakeholders urged the legislature to reject earlier versions of the bill that relied too heavily on student test score data in setting the criteria for merit pay, legislators struck a deal late in the session that would offer school districts more flexibility.

Parameters of the new incentive program are spelled out in Texas Education Code (TEC), Sec. 48.112, offering school districts additional funding based upon their employment of educators designated as “recognized,” “exemplary,” or “master” teachers. Lawmakers prescribed some requirements for educators to become eligible for those merit designations in TEC Sec. 21.3521. HB 3 calls for school districts that participate in the incentive program to create a “Local Optional Teacher Designation System” containing specific criteria that each district will use to award the merit designations, but the bill also authorizes the commissioner of education to establish performance standards for those local systems.

This week, TEA issued correspondence to school administrators outlining the agency’s plans for implementation of the new teacher incentive program, sharing timelines, and providing additional resources. TEA also sent school districts and open-enrollment charter schools a survey this week, which solicits information on what type of student growth measures and other criteria are being used locally for teacher appraisals. The survey results will help guide the agency’s implementation of the Local Optional Teacher Designation System, including the commissioner’s adoption of those performance standards required by HB 3.

It is important to note that the Local Optional Teacher Designation System associated with the  allotment is only “optional” in the sense that a school district does not have to choose to seek the teacher incentive funds made available under HB 3. However, any district that does pursue funding through the teacher incentive allotment in the spring of 2020 is required to develop a Local Optional Teacher Designation System. The locally-developed designation systems “must include teacher observation and the performance of a teacher’s students,” along with any additional measures that are adopted locally,” such as evidence of teacher leadership or student surveys,” as noted in the TEA correspondence this week. HB 3 specifies that the criteria for awarding a designation must allow for the mathematical possibility that all eligible teachers may earn the designation (in other words, not limiting eligibility to a fixed percentage of the district’s teachers) and that the commissioner may not require districts to use STAAR tests to evaluate their teachers’ performance for purposes of the merit pay program.


The Teacher Retirement System (TRS) will face a sunset review in the next legislative session. Under state law, the sunset review process gives the legislature an opportunity to routinely examine the work of various state agencies and determine whether they should continue to exist. TRS is a constitutionally-mandated agency, which means it is not subject to potential closure through the sunset review process, but the review allows an opportunity for the legislature to consider recommended changes to various TRS-related laws. Before the legislature weighs in on TRS next session, the state’s Sunset Advisory Commission will gather data, take testimony at public hearings, and compile a detailed written report about TRS including recommendations for possible legislative changes affecting the agency. Between now and Dec. 6, 2019, members of the public may share their feedback about TRS with the Sunset Advisory Commission’s staff as they prepare their report. Read more about the TRS sunset review here.


In case you missed it, ATPE Senior Lobbyist Monty Exter took to our Teach the Vote blog this week to share highlights from the Texas Tribune Festival. The festival that took place last weekend in Austin featured a number of high-profile speakers and panelists. Read more about some of the sessions relating to public education in this blog post.


 

In Fort Bend County’s HD 28, a potential bellwether special election

On Nov. 5, 2019, voters statewide will weigh in on proposed constitutional amendments, but there are also a few special elections taking place that same day. A special election to fill the unexpired term of former state Rep. John Zerwas (R-Richmond) will have plenty of eyeballs focused on House District (HD) 28 in Fort Bend County.

Six Republicans and one Democrat will face off to replace Rep. Zerwas, who resigned in order to work as a vice-chancellor for the University of Texas System. The Republicans in the race are Dr. Anna Allred, Gary Gates, Gary Hale, Tricia Krenek, Sarah Laningham, and Clinton Purnell. Dr. Eliz Markowitz is the lone Democrat in the race. Broken down by party, their background and positions relative to public education are outlined below.

Democrat:

  • Markowitz is a Katy educator who ran for the State Board of Education (SBOE) in 2018. Her website focuses on public education issues, including a detailed education policy platform. Markowitz supports reducing STAAR testing, improving school funding, and better teacher pay, while explicitly opposing private school vouchers. Markowitz has been endorsed by the pro-public education group Texas Parent PAC.

Republican:

  • Allred is a Houston anesthesiologist who lists technical training among her education priorities on her campaign website.
  • Gates is a Rosenberg real estate investor who lost a runoff for the Texas Railroad Commission in 2016. Gates also ran unsuccessfully for the HD 28 seat back in 2002 and 2004. On his campaign website, he lists his positions as “protect tax payers,” “support our schools,” “defend 2nd amendment,” and “enhance school safety,” but does not offer additional information as to his views on those issues.
  • Hale is a former Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) intelligence officer from Katy. On his website, Hale expresses support for arming teachers with firearms and returning to corporal punishment as a potential solution to school shootings.
  • Krenek is a Katy attorney who lost a 2018 race for Fort Bend County commissioner. Her website includes some education policy positions, such as increasing the state’s share of education funding, changing school finance “to reduce Robin Hood recapture payments,” and funding “additional across-the-board teacher pay raises.”
  • Laningham lives in Richmond and is a small business owner. Her campaign website makes no mention of education issues. She also ran for state representative last year in House District 14, but had no campaign website that ATPE could locate at that time.
  • A campaign website could not be found for Purnell, but his LinkedIn profile lists his occupation as “global logistics manager and corporate trade compliance” in Houston.

The HD 28 race is one of three special elections scheduled this fall, along with HD 148 in Houston and HD 100 in Dallas. The latter are not competitive districts from the standpoint of potential partisan shifts, but the math in HD 28 makes it a swing district, where a candidate from either party has a legitimate chance at winning the seat. Zerwas, a popular long time incumbent, won his reelection in 2018 by only eight percentage points. In doing so, he outperformed U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz, who won the district by just three points. Cruz’s margin represents a steady decline in Republican support in HD 28, which handed a ten percent margin to Donald Trump in 2016 and a 35-point margin to Greg Abbott in 2014.

Republicans hold a nine-seat majority in the Texas House. The winner of the HD 28 special election will serve out the rest of the term and will have to run for reelection again in 2020.

Voting is the single most important thing an educator can do to ensure the Texas Legislature prioritizes public schools and students. The deadline to register to vote in this special election and other November elections is Oct. 7, 2019. To see if you are registered and to check out a variety of election-related information, visit TexasEducatorsVote.com. As a reminder, early voting begins Oct. 21, and election day is Nov. 5.

Texas election roundup: Change of address and no take-backs

This week’s election news included a couple of eyebrow-raising developments. After announcing plans to leave the legislature to run for a local county commissioner position, state Rep. Mike Lang (R-Granbury) changed his mind and said he now plans to run for reelection after all.

In late-breaking news Friday, former State Board of Education (SBOE) Chair Donna Bahorich (R-Houston) announced she will not seek reelection. Bahorich chaired the board for the past two terms and was succeeded by Member Keven Ellis (R-Lufkin), who was sworn in as new board chair last week. While Bahorich won reelection by nearly 12 percentage points in 2016, her SBOE District 6 voted for Beto O’Rourke in 2018 by a four point margin.

Former U.S. Rep. Pete Sessions (R-TX 32) announced he will move from Dallas, where he lost his reelection bid to Democrat Colin Allred, to Waco, where he will run to fill the seat vacated by retiring Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX 17). U.S. Rep. Mac Thornberry (R-TX 13) became the sixth Texas Republican to announce his retirement ahead of the 2020 elections, leaving an opening in this solidly Republican, Amarillo-based district. In other federal races, Julian Castro told the audience at last weekend’s Texas Tribune Festival that he will not challenge U.S. Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX) should the former San Antonio mayor’s Democratic presidential campaign conclude unsuccessfully.

A poll commissioned by Democrats surveying six Texas congressional races indicated close races for several Republican incumbents, including U.S. Reps. Michael McCaul (R-TX 10), Chip Roy (R-TX 21), and John Carter (R-TX 31). The poll pitted a generic Republican against a generic Democrat in six Republican-held districts targeted by Democrats. A generic Democrat lead in two of those races: Texas’s 23rd Congressional District, where Rep. Will Hurd is retiring, and the 24th, where Rep. Kenny Marchant is retiring. From Public Policy Polling:

“Republicans have small advantages in the 10th District (49-46), 22nd District (49-45), 21st District (49-44), and 31st District (51-44) but across the board it looks like new opportunities are opening up for Democrats in places in Texas that never would have been imaginable even just 4 years ago.”

State Rep. Dan Flynn (R-Canton), who sits on the committee that oversees educators’ pensions, was among several Texas House members who announced this week they plan to run for reelection. Amid the steady flow of similar announcements, at least one member – state Rep. Terry Canales (D-Edinburg) – alternatively suggested it’s safe to assume he’s running for reelection until he states otherwise.

Former state Rep. Mike Schofield, who worked as a staffer for state Sen. Pat Fallon (R-Prosper) during the 86th Texas Legislature, announced plans to run against state Rep. Gina Calanni (D-Katy). Calanni defeated Schofield in 2018 by just over a hundred votes.

Finally, the deadline is Monday to register to vote in time for this November’s elections. This is critically important if you live in one of the districts where special elections are taking place on Nov. 5 to replace state representatives who have stepped down prior to the expiration of their terms. One race in particular, the special election in northwest Fort Bend County’s House District (HD) 28 to replace former state Rep. John Zerwas (R-Richmond), is expected to be close. Learn more about how to register to vote from our coalition partners at TexasEducatorsVote.com.

Remember, exercising your voice at the ballot box is the most powerful thing you can do to support public education!

Texas election roundup: More legislative race dropouts

This week continues to see Texas legislators dropping out of the 2020 contest.

State Rep. Dwayne Bohac (R-Houston) announced he will not seek reelection in House District (HD) 138. Rep. Bohac won reelection by less than one percentage point in 2018, and his district has voted for the Democrat at the top of the ballot in the last two elections.

State Rep. Mike Lang (R-Granbury) also announced he would not run for reelection in HD 60 in order to run for Hood County commissioner. Rep. Lang’s district is safely Republican, but Lang faced a serious primary challenge from public education advocate Jim Largent in the 2018 election cycle. During the 2019 legislative session, Lang chaired the House Freedom Caucus, which has consistently advocated for school privatization.

State Rep. Cesar Blanco (D-El Paso) received another boost in his campaign to succeed retiring state Sen. Jose Rodriguez (D-El Paso) in Senate District (SD) 29, announcing the endorsement of State Board of Education (SBOE) Member Georgina Perez (D-El Paso) this week. Rep. Blanco has already locked down the support of El Paso’s Texas House delegation.

A new poll out by the University of Texas-Tyler shows Joe Biden leading the field of Democratic presidential candidates among Texas Democrats or Independents who lean toward the Democratic Party, registering the support of 27.7 percent of respondents. Biden was followed by Beto O’Rourke at 18.9 percent, Bernie Sanders at 17.0 percent, and Elizabeth Warren at 10.9 percent. All other candidates were under ten percent. The poll, composed of 1,199 registered voters and conducted online between September 13 and September 15, showed 43.1 percent of respondents identified themselves along the “conservative” spectrum, while 29.7 identified as “moderate” and 27.1 identified along the “liberal” spectrum.

Tuesday of this week marked National Voter Registration Day, an annual event aimed at encouraging eligible citizens of voting age to make sure they are registered to vote. The deadline for registration in time to vote in the November 5, 2019, constitutional and special elections is October 7. Find out if your registration is current and check out a variety of voter resources by visiting our Texas Educators Vote coalition website at TexasEducatorsVote.com.

Reminder: National Voter Registration Day, Sept. 24

Today is National Voter Registration Day (NVRD).

Recognized each year on the fourth Tuesday of September, this is a great day for educating students about the voter registration process and reminding your friends and family members about the importance of being registered. We at ATPE encourage you to use the hashtag #NationalVoterRegistrationDay in your social media posts to help us spread the word today.

As a reminder, Oct. 7 is the deadline to register to vote in this November’s election, where several proposed constitutional amendments will be on the ballot for Texas voters.

Find additional tips for educators participating in NVRD today here, courtesy of the Texas Educators Vote coalition of which ATPE is a member.

National Voter Registration Day is Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2019

This Tuesday, September 24, is National Voter Registration Day (NVRD). Started in 2012, NVRD is a national day of recognition dedicated to ensuring that everyone has the opportunity to vote. NVRD, which takes place every fourth Tuesday of September, is a great opportunity for educators to inform students and their parents about the voter registration process. For tips on how to participate in National Voter Registration Day as an educator, ATPE suggests this blog post from the Texas Educators Vote coalition.

The deadline to register to vote for the Nov. 5 constitutional amendment election (which is also the date for some special elections for vacant legislative seats) is Oct. 7. Early voting begins Oct. 21. To learn more about the proposed constitutional amendments on the ballot, read this blog post by ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins. As the 2020 elections grow closer, we’ll continue to post news updates here on our Teach the Vote blog, as well as profiles of the candidates running for seats in the Texas Legislature and State Board of Education. But you can’t vote unless you are registered, so check your voter registration status today and remind your friends to do the same! Here are some helpful links:

  1. Check your voter registration status here to make sure it’s up to date and active.
  2. Click here for a Texas voter registration application that you can print out and mail in. Or use this link to request a voter registration application to be mailed to you.
  3. Send your completed voter registration application to the voter registrar in your county. Find a list of county contacts here.

Texas election roundup: More Senate shakeups

Big election news continues to come out of the Texas Senate, where state Sen. Jose Rodriguez (D-El Paso) announced last week that he will not seek reelection, and state Rep. Cesar Blanco (D-El Paso) followed with an announcement that he will seek Rodriguez’s open seat next year.

Sen. Rodriguez has been one of the most consistent champions of public education in the Texas Senate, and his Senate District (SD) 29 is securely in Democratic hands. Beto O’Rourke carried SD 29 by nearly 49 percentage points in 2018, and Rodriguez has not faced serious opposition in recent years. Rep. Blanco chairs the House Democratic Campaign Committee, which works to elect Democrats to the Texas House, and announced he has already secured the endorsements of fellow state Reps. Art Fierro (D-El Paso), Mary Gonzalez (D-Clint), Joe Moody (D-El Paso), and Poncho Nevarez (D-Eagle Pass), as well as U.S. Rep. Veronica Escobar (D-TX 16).

Other state representatives continue to announce plans to return to office. State Reps. Will Metcalf (R-Conroe), Brad Buckley (R-Salado), and Hugh Shine (R-Temple) all announced plans to run for reelection.

In the race for U.S. Senate, former U.S. Congressman and 2006 Democratic nominee for governor Chris Bell formally entered the race against incumbent Republican U.S. Senator John Cornyn. Bell is one of nine candidates vying for the Democratic nomination in the U.S. Senate race, including state Sen. Royce West (D-Dallas) and former congressional candidate and U.S. Air Force veteran MJ Hegar.

Tuesday, September 24, is National Voter Registration Day. The goal of this national, non-partisan event is to increase civic participation by registering hundreds of thousands of voters on Tuesday. It was launched in 2012 and has grown in popularity ever since, thanks to the help of non-partisan organizations such as the League of Women voters and the Texas Educators Vote coalition, of which ATPE is a member. Read this post by our friends at Texas Educators Vote to find out how you can participate.

Teach the Vote’s Week in Review: Sept. 13, 2019

Here’s this week’s education news wrap-up, courtesy of the ATPE Governmental Relations team:


SBOE Committee on School Initiatives meeting, Sept. 12, 2019

This week, members of the State Board of Education (SBOE) gathered in Austin to hold a series of meetings over Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, which ATPE’s lobbyists have been attending. View the full SBOE agenda and additional information about this week’s meetings here.

To kick things off, the board on Wednesday discussed the Texas Resource Review (TRR) process, formerly known as the Instructional Materials Quality Evaluation (IMQE). Acting as a rubric for instructional materials for English Language Arts and Reading (ELAR) in grades 3-8, the TRR will serve as a type of “consumer reports”  resources for school districts and educators looking for quality instructional materials. Read a full recap of Wednesday’s board meeting in this blog post from ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins.

Other topics of discussion during this week’s meetings of the board and its committees include a new procedure for nominating members to the School Land Board (SLB), the ed prep assessment pilot known as “EdTPA,” and the Generation 25 charter application that would establish charters with new operators as opposed to letting existing charter holders expand their operations. ATPE’s Wiggins has more on the discussion of these items in this blog post from Thursday.

The board will wrap up its September meetings today. The full board’s agenda for today includes hearing from Commissioner of Education Mike Morath. Read more about his remarks at today’s SBOE meeting, which covered accountability and new reading academy requirements, in this Teach the Vote blog post from ATPE Lobbyist Andrea Chevalier.

Commissioner of Education Mike Morath speaking to the ATPE Board of Directors, Sept. 7, 2019

The board also took time today to recognize outgoing chair Donna Bahorich for her leadership with an honorary resolution. This will be the last meeting over which Bahorich will preside, pending the governor’s naming of a new chair for the SBOE.

Related: Commissioner Mike Morath also visited the ATPE Board of Directors meeting in Pflugerville on Sept. 7, 2019. The commissioner updated the board on accountability ratings, discussed the issue of merit pay, and more.


This year’s legislative session saw a slew of bills relating to assessments, from their administration and content to their duration and much more. For an in-depth look at which laws from the 86th session will affect things like end-of-course exams, individual graduation committees (IGCs), and the length of standardized state assessments, check out this week’s blog post by ATPE Lobbyist Andrea Chevalier. On Monday, we’ll have a another new post for our ongoing “New School Year, New Laws” weekly series here on Teach the Vote. You can also learn more about many new laws affecting educators in this comprehensive digital guide compiled by ATPE’s legal staff.


The latest iteration of “HB 3 in 30,” the Texas Education Agency’s weekly video series that breaks down the signature education bill of the 86th session, focuses on reading practices. Click here to watch the most recent video and access all the prior videos in the HB 3 in 30 series.


It was announced this week that Harrison Keller will become the new Commissioner of Higher Education, following the recent retirement of Commissioner Raymund Peredes. The announcement came Wednesday after a unanimous vote by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB). Keller, who assumes the post on Oct. 1, has worked for the University of Texas and was a longtime education policy adviser to a former Texas Speaker of the House, Rep. Tom Craddick (R-Midland).


ELECTION UPDATE: Yet another big retirement announcement came today with Sen. José Rodriguez (D-El Paso) announcing that he will not seek re-election. An attorney, Sen. Rodriguez has described himself as the first member of his family to attend college. He was first elected to the Senate District 29 seat in 2010 and has also chaired the Senate Democratic Caucus.

Early voting for the upcoming November election begins on Oct. 21, just five weeks from now. For more information about what’s going to be on the ballot, check out our previous Teach the Vote blog posts on proposed constitutional amendments and some special elections that will be taking place on the same day. You can also use the resources provided by the Texas Educators Vote coalition to help ensure you are ready to vote. The deadline to register to vote for the November 5 election is Oct. 7, 2019.

Texas election roundup: Another big retirement

The big news so far this week has been U.S. Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX 17) announcing his retirement and intention not to run for reelection in 2020. Flores defeated longtime Waco Democrat Rep. Chet Edwards in the Republican wave election of 2010. Flores won reelection in 2018 by nearly 16 percentage points, and U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz beat Democratic challenger Beto O’Rourke by just over nine points in the district.

The field of candidates in three special elections scheduled for Nov. 5 has been set. After the close of the filing deadline, a total of 26 candidates had declared campaigns to succeed state Reps. John Zerwas (R-Richmond), Jessica Farrar (D-Houston), and Eric Johnson (D-Dallas). The most competitive race will be for the seat being vacated by Rep. Zerwas in House District (HD) 28, which both Zerwas and Cruz won by single-digit margins in 2018. One Democrat and six Republicans have filed for the seat. The full list of candidates in this fall’s special elections can be found in this post by the Texas Tribune.

The 2020 elections pose a major test of the resolve of educators to hold their elected representatives to account for legislation passed and legislation promised. Things like school funding and educator pay will almost certainly be on the chopping block when the Texas Legislature returns in 2021, which makes your votes all the more important. If you are not yet registered to vote in Texas, the deadline to do so in time for this November’s elections is October 7. If you’re not yet registered or unsure what to do, just follow this link to the Texas Educators Vote coalition website.

Teach the Vote’s Week in Review: Aug. 30, 2019

Here’s your weekly wrap-up of education news from ATPE Governmental Relations:


On Wednesday, Gov. Greg Abbott issued a new report lauding efforts aimed at “Improving School Safety in Texas.” The school safety update details recent legislative and administrative actions taken, including the approval of 17 new laws and $339 million in state funding. Additionally, the report highlights a 37% increase in the number of teachers and school resource officers (SROs) being trained in mental health first aid; improvements to communications between various state agencies that deal with school safety issues; and new authority for charter schools to hire security personnel. Read more about the new report in this blog post from ATPE Senior Lobbyist Monty Exter.

Also this week, ATPE’s lobbyists posted the second installment of our “New School Year, New Laws” blog series here on Teach the Vote with a look at school safety legislation. Check out Monday’s blog post by ATPE Lobbyist Andrea Chevalier to learn more about bills that were passed during the 2019 legislative session to address safety issues such as student mental health, school marshals, and school preparedness for emergencies and traumas. Next week we’ll be posting an update on new laws pertaining to curriculum and instruction.


A product of the 85th Texas Legislature, Senate Bill 1882 that was passed in 2017 allows public schools that are at risk of being shut down to partner with charter schools for turnaround initiatives. In the recently released “A-F” accountability grades for school districts and campuses, seven of the 12 public school campuses that have partnered with charters or nonprofits received an “F” rating.

While it may be too soon to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the partnerships, and there are serious questions about the utility of the A-F system, the accountability ratings offer an early glimpse at how the partnership program is working. Our friend Aliyya Swaby at the Texas Tribune wrote about the findings in this article republished on our Teach the Vote blog this week.


We’ve reached that point in the year when campaign announcements are coming out practically every day. Find out which legislators have announced their re-election bids in our latest election update from ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins. This week Mark offers insights on the districts where contested races are shaping up and highlights new resources available from the Texas Educators Vote coalition. Read the newest election news roundup here.


The Texas Education Agency (TEA) continues its “HB 3 in 30” video series with two new video presentations uploaded this week. The latest entries in the series highlight funding changes under this year’s major school finance and reform bill for charter schools and Gifted and Talented programs. View the HB 3 video resources here.