Category Archives: charter schools

SBOE Update: Board seeks more authority over charter expansion, ATPE advances Master Teacher rule fix

The State Board of Education (SBOE) is meeting this week for the last time this calendar year. ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins has been attending the virtual meetings and reporting on them here on our ATPE advocacy blog. Here are the latest developments:

Wednesday highlights:

On Wednesday, November 18, the board began its day with a presentation by Commissioner of Education Mike Morath. Read more about the discussion between the board members and commissioner in this blog post from yesterday. Also on Wednesday, the board debated its legislative recommendations for 2021, and set the Permanent School Fund (PSF) distribution rate for the next two-year state budget.

The board held a preliminary vote to set a distribution rate of 4.18% from the PSF for the 2022-23 budget biennium, directing $1.17 billion per fiscal year and $3.34 billion for the biennium to fund public schools. Member Tom Maynard (R-Florence), who chairs the board’s Committee on School Finance/PSF, noted that the Legislature will ask the board to contribute as much as possible due to the financial strain on the state caused by the recession. In response to questions about why the board can’t contribute more than it does, Maynard explained that the nature of endowments is that they are limited in how much they can distribute while protecting the corpus and maintaining growth of the fund.

TEA staff updated the board on the results of the SBOE’s legislative recommendations for the previous session in 2019. Among the items included in the board’s recommendations last session were changes to PSF governance to address conflicts between the SBOE and the School Land Board (SLB), which manages the fund’s real estate assets and is housed within the General Land Office (GLO). The 86th Texas Legislature passed legislation in 2019 designed to mitigate those conflicts and requiring the two boards to meet together at least once a year.

SBOE Chair Keven Ellis presides over the November meeting.

The board then considered its legislative recommendations for the upcoming 2021 legislative session, beginning with readopting recommendations that had not been addressed in 2019. The recommendations comprise legislation the board would like to support.

The board approved a legislative recommendation introduced by Member Georgina Perez (D-El Paso) to expand the SBOE’s authority to approve or reject charter school expansion amendments. The board currently has veto authority over the approval of new charter chains, but no authority over the expansion to additional campuses once a charter chain is approved. The commissioner is the sole authority who decides whether charter chains can open additional campuses; the current commissioner has allowed charter chains, including those with failing accountability ratings, to expand exponentially. The SBOE did not approve a recommendation, however, calling for a moratorium on new charter chains.

Perez also proposed a recommendation on reducing the number of high-stakes tests to only those that are required under federal law, as well as removing A-F grades used in the state’s accountability system for schools. ATPE has advocated for removing harmful labels from the accountability system that oversimplify educational factors and only serve to stigmatize schools and communities. Unfortunately, the SBOE did not adopt this recommendation today.

The board also did not approve a number of recommendations Perez proposed that explicitly expressed support for protecting the health and safety of educators and students by granting local districts the flexibility to make determinations about educational delivery, as well as requiring that local educators and parents have meaningful input into reopening decisions.

Members then resumed discussion on curriculum standards (TEKS) up for final adoption at this month’s meeting. The board will vote on the revised TEKS for health, physical education, and science during their Friday meeting.

Thursday highlights:

The board divided into its three standing committees Thursday morning, with the School Initiatives, Instruction, and School Finance/PSF Committees holding separate hearings.

ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins testifies before the SBOE Committee on School Initiatives.

ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins testified before the Committee on School Initiatives Thursday morning in support of a new administrative rule that will allow Legacy Master Teachers to retain their certificates without expiration. ATPE’s Governmental Relations team approached Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff in the summer of 2019 with concerns raised by Legacy Master Teachers whose certificates were scheduled to expire as a result of language in House Bill (HB) 3. ATPE worked with agency staff and other stakeholders to develop a solution that would allow Legacy Master Teachers, including Legacy Master Reading Teachers, to continue teaching in their current positions. The State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC) approved the final rule in October of 2020.

By law, all rules passed by SBEC must be reviewed by SBOE, which holds veto authority that is rarely executed. Wiggins thanked TEA staff, SBEC members, and House Public Education Committee Chairman Rep. Dan Huberty (R-Kingwood) for their work to ensure that the expertise of Legacy Master Teachers remains in the classroom. After Wiggins’s testimony, the committee advanced the rule to the full board with a favorable recommendation. The rule will go into effect pending a favorable review by the full SBOE on Friday.

ATPE and others recommend changing the state’s charter application process

Following immediately on the heels of the approval of the latest round of new charter school operators, the Texas Education Agency (TEA) is looking to finalize its Generation 26 Charter Operator Application Process. On October 22, ATPE and 19 other pro-public education organizations sent feedback to the agency recommending 37 changes to the application process.

Top recommendations made by the groups include the following:

  • Requiring charter applicants to identify the specific zip code where any new charter campus, or campuses, will be located so that the need for a new charter campus can be more accurately assessed.
  • Requiring TEA to consider and make public the additional cost to the state of new campuses proposed in the application submitted by each prospective new charter operator.
  • Requiring TEA to expand the criteria for approval of new charters to include the impact of the proposed charter on public schools and local communities.
  • Requiring TEA to change the application process to a two-year cycle to accommodate the demands of the legislative session and allow for more accurate budget projections based on approved charter enrollment.
  • Requiring the charter applicant to provide additional information that would better inform the agency, external reviewers, SBOE members, and the public. Such additional information includes related party and real estate transactions; professional development hours by proposed programs; more specific information about innovative programs; and unredacted management services agreements.

Read the full list of changes sought by ATPE and the other organizations here.

TEA gets federal funding to grow charters and approves one controversial charter chain’s expansion

Mike Morath

Texas Education Commissioner Mike Morath approved the controversial expansion of IDEA, one of the state’s largest charter school chains, to 12 new campuses in 2021.

The commissioner announced his decision last week despite 18 education organizations, including ATPE, calling for a moratorium on the expansion of taxpayer-funded charter school chains while the state faces a $4.6 billion budget deficit caused by the economic recession. This recession threatens the funding of existing public schools, which must contend with both the economic conditions and educating 5.4 million students during the global COVID-19 pandemic.

The commissioner denied 15 of the 27 new campuses proposed by IDEA, but approved two new campuses in Odessa, two in La Joya, two in San Antonio, two in El Paso, two in Fort Worth, and two in Lake Houston. This will increase IDEA’s maximum enrollment by 15,000 students. Over the last four years, IDEA has expanded to 62 new campuses. Funded by Texas taxpayers, the charter chain has since doubled its budget, including spending on lavish executive salaries, private jets, and a luxury suite for the San Antonio Spurs.

Charter school chains differ from traditional public schools in the way they are funded and governed. While charter chains are run by private, unelected boards and are often tied to for-profit, out-of-state charter management organizations (CMO), they are funded almost entirely by state tax dollars. Independent school districts (ISD) are funded in part by the state and in part by local taxes. This means that charter chains cost the state more money per student than ISDs, to the tune of millions of dollars, depending on the size of the chain.

Under U.S. Education Secretary Betsy DeVos, a longtime proponent of school privatization, the U.S. Department of Education has placed an increasing focus on diverting federal tax dollars to charter chains. On Friday, the department announced it had designated more than $131 million in federal funding to expand charter chains nationwide, $33 million of which will go to expanding charter chains in Texas. The largest tranche of this federal funding went to the Texas Education Agency (TEA). The department awarded more than $23 million to the TEA for charter expansions and $10 million to the Texas Public Finance Authority, which allows charter chains to obtain public financing through taxpayer-backed bonds.

ATPE and other education organizations have pointed out that it is irresponsible to pour scarce tax dollars into expanding these privately run business ventures while the state faces a $4.6 billion budget shortfall that could result in less state funding for local schools — potentially leading to layoffs or other negative consequences to the public education system.

In September, the State Board of Education (SBOE) vetoed three of the eight new charter school chains TEA proposed to establish in Texas. The elected SBOE has the authority to determine whether a new chain is allowed to open for businesses in Texas. However once a new chain is established, the unelected commissioner has sole discretion over future expansions. The Texas Legislature could make charter chains more accountable to voters and taxpayers by expanding the SBOE’s veto authority to charter chain expansions as well.

 

SBOE vetoes three proposed charter chains

The State Board of Education (SBOE) formally vetoed three applications to operate new charter school chains in Texas on Friday. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) had recommended eight new charter chains for approval at this week’s SBOE meeting.

The board has veto authority over new charter school operators. Members voted to veto Heritage Classical Academy in Houston and Rocketship Public Schools in Fort Worth. The board tentatively approved CLEAR Public Charter School in San Marcos at Thursday’s meeting, but reversed course and voted to formally veto the application Friday morning.

The board narrowly approved five of the eight charter chains recommended by TEA: Brillante Academy in McAllen, Doral Academy of Texas in Buda, Learn4Life Austin, Prelude Preparatory Charter School in San Antonio, and Royal Public Schools in San Antonio.

ATPE joined with numerous public education organizations this week in asking the board to veto all of the proposed new charter chains while Texas faces a $4.6 billion budget shortfall due to the economic recession driven by the COVID-19 pandemic and the volatile oil and gas market. This echoes a request ATPE and public education organizations made earlier this year to the commissioner of education to place a moratorium on charter chain expansions, which do not have to be approved by the SBOE.

SBOE tentatively approves 6 new charter chains

The State Board of Education (SBOE) narrowly voted to give tentative approval to six of the eight new charter school chains the Texas Education Agency (TEA) has recommended for approval this year.

A sharply divided board advanced Brillante Academy in McAllen, CLEAR Public Charter School in San Marcos, Doral Academy of Texas in Buda, Learn4Life Austin, Prelude Preparatory Charter School in San Antonio, and Royal Public Schools in San Antonio by a preliminary vote Thursday evening.

Members voted to veto Heritage Classical Academy in Houston and Rocketship Public Schools in Fort Worth. The board will take a final vote on the charter applicants in Friday’s formal meeting.

ATPE joined multiple education organizations in asking the board to consider whether spending tax dollars on new charters is the right thing to do at this moment. The board has the authority to veto new charter applicants.

Texas Comptroller Glenn Hegar has warned Texas is facing a $4.58 billion shortfall heading into the next budget cycle due to the economic recession driven by the COVID-19 pandemic and volatile oil market. The eight charter chains up for approval at this week’s meeting are projected to cost the state an additional $12 million per year.

On Wednesday, Texas Education Commissioner Mike Morath downplayed the idea that $12 million a year is a significant sum, but $12 million could cover the salaries of more than 200 educators at risk of being laid off due to the economic recession caused by COVID-19.

Once initially approved, charter chains are able to expand exponentially without need for approval from the SBOE, or any other elected official. More than 90 expansion amendments have been filed this year which could cost the state an additional $90 million annually. TEA has already approved at least 62 expansion amendments so far this year.

Among the eight charter chains up for approval this week are operators based in New York, Florida, and California. These states would be the recipients of Texas taxpayers’ dollars if these charter chains are approved.

ATPE joined with other education organizations earlier this year in calling for a moratorium on charter expansions. The same rationale applies to ATPE’s recommendation that the board deny the eight charter applications at this time.

Morath pitches new charters to skeptical SBOE

The State Board of Education (SBOE) is meeting in person this week to tackle a packed scheduled that includes discussion of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum standards for science, physical education, and health. The board is also discussing whether to approve and spend state tax dollars on eight new charter school systems recommended by the Texas Education Agency (TEA).

The board spent Tuesday hearing from hundreds of people voicing their opinions about the TEKS up for discussion. After a 13-hour day of testimony, the board resumed business Wednesday with its regularly scheduled update from Texas Commissioner of Education Mike Morath.

Commissioner Morath began Wednesday with a status report on reading academies, which all kindergarten through third grade teachers must complete by the 2022-23 school year. There are 20,000 teachers in more than 500 cohorts currently participating in the academies through 38 authorized providers.

The commissioner focused the majority of his presentation on a preemptive defense of the eight new charter schools he is recommending the SBOE approve this week. The board holds veto authority over all new proposed charter organizations, but that veto does not apply to individual campuses or expansions once an initial charter organization is approved. A bipartisan collection of members sharply questioned Morath over charter policy and the numbers used in his sales pitch Wednesday.

In response to a question by Member Tom Maynard (R-Florence), the commissioner said the total number of charter schools has grown from 484 in 2017 to 553 in 2019. The commissioner downplayed the total cost of charter schools, which Member Matt Robinson (R-Friendswood) pointed out are completely funded by state dollars through the Foundation School Program (FSP). This makes charter schools significantly more expensive to the state than traditional independent school districts (ISD), which are funded by a combination of state, local, and other funds.

The eight new charters the commissioner is proposing are estimated to cost the state $12 million per year once they are operating at capacity. This does not include the additional cost once they expand to additional campuses. Charter schools have submitted more than 90 expansion applications to TEA this year alone, which could cost the state an additional $90 million per year. At least 62 have been approved so far.

Member Robinson also noted that Texas faces an $11 billion decline in state revenue as a result of the economic recession driven by COVID-19. This has placed unprecedented stress on the state budget, prompting state leaders to call for 5% across-the-board cuts at state agencies. Robinson pointed out that despite this fiscal crisis, Commissioner Morath has increased the number of new charter schools he is proposing to open at the state’s expense from five last year to eight this year.

Member Pat Hardy (R-Fort Worth) added that some of the charters currently up for approval are based in California and New York. Member Hardy asked the commissioner, “How do we talk to taxpayers about sending tax dollars out of state?” Morath replied that the economy is globally interconnected. Member Hardy also asked whether only the top-performing schools are approved for expansion, leading the commissioner to state that while D- and F-rated charters were allowed to expand in the past, he believes they are no longer being allowed to grow.

“Is this the right year to be playing Shark Tank?” asked Member Ruben Cortez (D-Brownsville), comparing the proposed spending of state dollars on additional charter school experiments to the well-known TV show where inventors of new products pitch their ideas to investors.

Many of the board members’ concerns about spending state dollars on new charter schools at a time when Texas school districts are needing additional resources to combat the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic mirror those of ATPE and other organizations. Back in April, ATPE joined a coalition of 18 organizations that wrote to Commissioner Morath asking for a moratorium on charter expansions this year.

During today’s discussion, Member Georgina Perez (D-El Paso) echoed previous concerns about the higher state cost of funding charter schools, which the commissioner’s presentation to the board omitted. Perez added, “There’s a lot of good information you could be sharing, but this just isn’t it.”

Member Pam Little (R-Fairview) raised the issue of charters schools sending students with disciplinary issues back to their local ISD, while money stays with the charter. Commissioner Morath disputed Little’s characterization of the process.

Finally, Member Lawrence Allen (D-Houston) asked the commissioner a separate series of questions relating to educators. Asked by Member Allen whether TEA is collecting data on teacher retention under the threat of returning to school during the pandemic, Morath answered that the agency will not have that info until next September or October of 2021. Asked about resignations outside of the no-fault window, Morath suggested there are “a variety of exceptions” that will be handled on a case-by-case basis through the State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC).

Following the commissioner’s comments, the board turned its attention to the Permanent School Fund (PSF). The board approved a $300 million one-time payment to the Available School Fund (ASF) via the real estate special fund account (RESFA) in order to support districts and cover the state’s obligations under last year’s House Bill (HB) 3. The board also tentatively approved a 4.0% distribution rate to the ASF for the 2022-23 biennium.

Members then spent the remainder of the day debating changes to the TEKS that were up for discussion on Tuesday. Any unfinished business from Wednesday’s meeting will be taken up following a public hearing scheduled for Thursday morning over the new charter applicants. Stay tuned to ATPE’s Teach the Vote blog for updates on the board’s actions this week.

Virtual charter school students experienced learning loss, study shows

Virtual schooling is in the spotlight right now, especially with many parents considering how to approach returning to school this fall in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic. For this reason, we took note of a recent study published in the prestigious, peer-reviewed journal Educational Researcher, which found a significant decline in achievement for Indiana students who switched to a virtual charter school. The virtual setting’s impact on the students’ achievement in math and English language arts (ELA), compared to that of their traditional public school peers, was “uniformly and profoundly negative,” according to the study’s authors.

The Indiana study showed that students in grades 3-8 who switched from a traditional setting to a full-time virtual setting experienced an 11 percentile point loss in ELA and 16 percentile point loss in math on annual assessments when compared to their peers who stayed in the in-person setting, even controlling for factors such as race, sex, poverty, achievement, and teacher and classroom characteristics. Other studies outside of Indiana have found similar results. The study authors conclusion suggests that parents who choose this type of virtual option may be putting their children at a severe disadvantage when it comes to learning.

Why might this learning loss occur in students attending virtual schools? The researchers note that the virtual schools in the Indiana study had an average class size of 100 students, which is about four to five times greater than the acceptable class-size limits fought for by education advocates such as ATPE. Additionally, virtual schools often use for-profit vendors, aiming to capitalize on the need for children to learn, to deliver the school’s educational content. Unfortunately, profit-oriented behaviors never seem to play out well in the public education field because it is difficult to cut corners in an industry that thrives on human relationships. In fact, the integral nature of relationships to teaching and learning has become even more apparent during the pandemic, as both teachers and students have resorted to parades, sidewalk chats, yard signs, driveway lessons, personal mail, and other methods of interacting when virtual classrooms just won’t cut it.

In a recent blog post, the authors of the study wrote that virtual charter schools are “ill-equipped” to expand their presence and enrollment during the COVID-19 pandemic. They recommend that policymakers focus on greater accountability and oversight for these schools. ATPE has also long fought for greater accountability and oversight in numerous debates over full-time virtual programs, whether such a program enrolls students through a charter school or a school district.

Here in Texas, after the pandemic began, Republican members of the Senate Education Committee asked the Texas Education Agency to consider expanding virtual school options in Texas, despite the negative data showing virtual schools do not perform as well as their brick-and-mortar counterparts. The Coalition for Public Schools, of which ATPE is a member, responded by sending a letter in early May to Texas Commissioner of Education Mike Morath to explain why such an expansion would not benefit Texas families. ATPE will be weighing in as developments unfold with regard to virtual schooling amid the pandemic, such as potential efforts to expand virtual or private schooling options using federal emergency dollars as touted by U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. Stay tuned to the Teach the Vote blog and Twitter for updates.

SBOE hosts April meeting via videoconference

The Texas State Board of Education (SBOE) met virtually Thursday for its scheduled April meeting. In compliance with the governor’s social distancing executive order, the 15 members of the board met via Zoom videoconference to consider an abbreviated agenda spread over Thursday and Friday of this week.

The SBOE’s April 16, 2020, Zoom meeting was livestreamed to the public.

The board began Thursday by consolidating career and technology education courses as required by the legislature, which includes aligning graduation requirements and Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) standards.

Members then turned their attention to second reading and final adoption of TEKS for a new African American studies ethnic studies course. The board has been working on this course over the last few meetings and has expressed great interest in this project. Several witnesses offered written and video testimony with suggestions for this course, such as including authors James Baldwin and Toni Morrison as additional examples of important figures. This led to a debate over the appropriate balance of providing enough examples versus being overly prescriptive, as well as the process through which the currently proposed standards were developed. After spending several hours debating and amending the TEKS, the board voted to tentatively approve the course with an effective date of August 1, 2020.

Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff updated the board on federal Perkins funding, which the U.S. Department of Education has allowed the state to extend during the COVID-19 outbreak. The state’s application will be submitted by April 29.

SBOE Chair Keven Ellis speaks during the April 16, 2020, Zoom meeting

Members concluded the morning session with an update on current TEKS standards under review. The brunt of testimony focused on health education standards. The board’s discussion of health and physical education TEKS scheduled for this week has been postponed to May due to logistical hurdles presented by COVID-19 social distancing requirements. Board Chairman Keven Ellis (R-Lufkin) said the agency is tentatively targeting the end of the second full week of May (May 14-15) or the beginning of the third week (May 18-19) for discussion, but acknowledged that it’s difficult to predict when the agency will have the educator feedback necessary to present to the board. The review of high school biology, chemistry, IPC, and physics TEKS scheduled for March and April has also been postponed. This will in turn delay the review of the remaining high school science courses, as well as K-5 and CTE courses for science credit. Agency staff acknowledged that the transition to having TEKS review work groups meet virtually has posed a significant challenge and further delayed the process.

The board separated into its three standing committees for the remainder of the day. The Committee on School Initiatives discussed updates on the Generation 25 application for charter schools. A total of 96 entities showed up for this year’s initial informational meetings. Of those, 22 submitted applications by the January 21 deadline, which is 11 fewer than the previous year. TEA advanced 16 applications to the review stage. The commissioner will propose applications to the SBOE in August for the board to either approve to disapprove in September.

Member Ruben Cortez (D-Brownsville) questioned the need for creating additional charter schools — which are funded 100% by the state and reduce the money available to local independent school districts — at a time when the state faces significant funding challenges as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. Cortez asked TEA staff if the commissioner had yet to respond to a letter from education organizations including ATPE calling for a moratorium on new charter schools. TEA staff indicated they would follow up and share the commissioner’s response with the board.

The committee also reviewed board rules determining the criteria for the board’s veto of new applications and its ability to revoke a charter or place it on probation. Members discussed whether to amend its rules to place additional requirements on new charter applications, and whether it could do so without handcuffing its authority.

Members of the Committee on School Finance/Permanent School Fund (PSF) discussed the health of the PSF in the wake of market disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The PSF is the state’s investment account that helps fund public education and is managed by TEA under the oversight of the SBOE. The fund lost $2.7 billion in March, dropping to $31.7 billion from $34.4 billion. Despite this loss, agency staff reassured the board that the fund will be able to recover due to the long-term nature of its investment strategy. The agency said it will likely be another month before numbers will be available to compare the performance of the PSF to that of other peer funds.

The full board will gather virtually at 9:00 a.m. Friday to conclude its April agenda.

ATPE joins call for moratorium on charter expansions

The Association of Texas Professional Educators (ATPE) has joined with 17 other education organizations in sending a letter urging Texas Education Commissioner Mike Morath to place a moratorium on the expansion of charter schools across the state during the coronavirus pandemic.

A broad group of education organizations including ATPE emphasized the critical need to sustain state funding for public schools under House Bill (HB) 3 passed during the last legislative session, and pointed out that increasing charter school enrollment, which is funded 100% by the state, would place an additional and unnecessary burden on state funds that will be desperately needed to sustain public education during and after the COVID-19 crisis.

There are currently 94 charter expansion amendments on file with the Texas Education Agency (TEA), which could cost the state an additional $90 million per year if approved. Charter school enrollment is still well below the current maximum capacity approved by TEA of 558,728. If charter schools were to reach the maximum capacity allowed by TEA, the cost to the state would be estimated as an additional $250 million per year.

In asking Morath to deny or significantly limit the approval of charter expansion amendments in 2020, education organizations are requesting the commissioner consider the following:

  • Charter schools should serve special needs students in at least the same proportion as the state average;
  • special education and English language learner (ELL) students in charters should be served by appropriately certified educators;
  • charter schools should show compelling need and public support for new campuses;
  • charter saturation in a given district should not negatively impact the fiscal health of the district;
  • the track record of charter expansion applicants should be successful;
  • charters should not send Texas taxpayers’ money to an out-of-state charter management organization (CMO); and
  • charter expansions that would open in 2020 should be denied in the absence of a compelling reason otherwise.

The authority to approve or deny charter expansions rests solely with the Texas commissioner of education. You can read the full text of the letter signed by 18 education organizations including ATPE here.

SBOE committee discusses charter applications

TEA staff answer questions about charter school applications during an SBOE committee meeting.

The State Board of Education (SBOE) Committee on School Initiatives met Thursday morning, Jan. 30, 2020, in Austin, where their agenda included a look at applications by charter schools to open new schools or expand to new campuses.

Member Marisa Perez-Diaz (D-San Antonio) asked Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff to consider the geographic location of existing charter schools and pending applications for new charters when it comes to considering whether to grant existing charter schools permission to expand to additional campuses.

Member Matt Robinson (R-Friendswood) suggested staff require charter applicants and applicants for expansions to provide the agency with the specific location of proposed new charter schools, either down to the zip code or independent school district level, as part of the application. Member Georgina Perez (D-El Paso) took time away from the Committee on Instruction to press TEA staff to provide additional information on charter applications.

A number of witnesses testified before the committee regarding new charter schools, focusing on market saturation and duplication of services in many cases. Suggestions to improve the application process included requiring applicants to identify specific services that are not addressed by ISD schools, as well as the specific location of planned new campuses. Board Chair Keven Ellis (R-Lufkin) expressed agreement with the concept of including more information in applications, such as geographic information.

The SBOE will conclude its week-long January meeting on Friday, when the agenda is set to include advancing curriculum standards for a new course on African-American Studies. As always, we invite you to stay tuned to Teach the Vote for updates.