Texas Pension Review Board adopts principles of retirement plan design

A subcommittee of the Texas Pension Review Board (PRB) has been working over the last several months on a set of non-binding guidelines meant to impart what the board feels are best practices with respect to retirement plan design for use by the retirement plans that are required to report to the board.

Despite some concern expressed by smaller funds over how the board’s non-mandatory recommendation on vesting periods might be made into a legal mandate by the Texas Legislature, the full PRB unanimously adopted the proposed principles, which can be found here, at its most recent meeting.

The Texas Teachers Retirement System (TRS) pension fund is one of the many funds, and certainly the largest fund, required to report to the PRB. While the design of the TRS pension fund by and large already meets the voluntary standards enumerated in the PRB’s principles document, the two areas where it does not are notable. First, the principles document calls for “contributions to retirement plans [to] be consistent with the PRB Pension Funding Guidelines.” Those guidelines call for plans to be funded at a level that would allow the plans’ unfunded liability to be amortized over less than 30 years. Second, the PRB principles say that a plan’s “retirement benefits should be protected against the erosion of the benefit’s value due to inflation.” Essentially that means plans should include built in COLAs (Cost of Living Adjustments). In both instances, that the TRS pension plan does not comply with these best practices is a function of the Legislature choosing not to fund the plan adequately.

Perhaps the Legislature and the Governor should take a note from the PRB, a body the legislature created whose chairman the Governor appoints, and fund TRS adequately to comply with the PRB’s newly adopted principles.

 

 

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Teach the Vote’s Week in Review: June 15, 2018

Here’s your weekly wrap-up of education news from ATPE Governmental Relations:


ATPE leaders and staff meet with Rep. Kevin Brady.

A delegation of ATPE leaders and staff were in Washington, D.C. this week for several days of meetings covering multiple topics pertaining to public education policy at the federal level. Primarily, the contingent met with members of the Texas delegation in Congress as well as other key decision makers about the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP), which negatively impacts the Social Security benefits of too many educators in Texas and across the country. Among their agenda was a meeting with U.S. House Ways and Means Chairman Kevin Brady (R-TX), who has led a push to replace the current WEP with a fairer formula for calculating the Social Security benefits of those affected. The team of ATPE advocates also discussed our recent efforts to prevent federal vouchers and pressed for maintaining Title II funding within the Higher Education Act that supports educators, among other issues. Learn more about the work ATPE did in Washington this week in this post from ATPE Governmental Relations Director Jennifer Mitchell Canaday.

 


The Senate Select Committee on Violence in Schools and School Security met Monday and Tuesday for its inaugural meetings. The committee was established late last month by Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick following Gov. Greg Abbott’s roll out of a 40-page plan to address school safety following the school shooting tragedy in Santa Fe. So far the Lt. Gov. has assigned the committee four charges to study between now and the end of August, when he expects the committee to wrap up its work and offer recommendations on next steps. Two of the four charges were discussed this week. ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins has a recap of the the Monday meeting covering school infrastructure and design techniques aimed at improving school safety. ATPE Lobbyist Kate Kuhlmann was at Tuesday’s hearing, and she has more on that day’s discussion covering school security programs. ATPE provided written testimony to the committee encouraging members of the committee to respect that the needs of local school districts differ broadly, understand that adequate funding must accompany proposals to address school safety, and engage educators as conversations on school safety continue. The committee is expected to meet again in July to focus on mental health.

 


The Texas State Board of Education (SBOE) met this week in Austin. Leading the headlines from the four-day meeting was coverage of developments regarding a long fought battle to establish a course focused on Mexican-American studies. That began on Tuesday when a meeting allowing public comment on a number of curriculum issues was largely focused on public comments regarding the newly approved course. A set of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) were adopted for the course, and it was ultimately renamed based on input from public testifiers. Originally titled “Ethnic Studies: An Overview of Mexicans of American Descent” the course was changed by the board to “Ethnic Studies: Mexican American Studies.” The board also heard updates from TEA Commissioner Mike Morath regarding Hurricane Harvey, the Santa Fe school shooting, and assessment woes; voted to approve new charter applicants; and amended the dyslexia handbook. Linked in the text above are a series of posts from ATPE Lobbyist Mark Wiggins who attended the meetings and reported extensively on their work this week. Today’s final meeting gave the board the opportunity to finalize all of its work earlier in the week.

 


 

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SBOE quietly concludes June meeting

The State Board of Education (SBOE) met Friday morning to conclude its June meeting, which began with the board recognizing Arlington Collegiate High School Teacher Jennifer Fuller and Slaton Junior High TAP Master Teacher Katie Negen as 2017-2018 Milken National Educator Awards winners. The board also honored winners of the National Blue Ribbon Schools program and the 2018 Student Heroes Award.

SBOE recognizes teachers receiving Milken National Educator Awards on June 15, 2018.

The board moved quickly through most of the action items, but paused to amend a proposed rule change regarding credit by examination (CBE), which received criticism from school administrators in Thursday’s committee meeting. Member Ruben Cortez (D-Brownsville) expressed concern that certain provisions regarding external validation may amount to an unfunded mandate on school districts that currently have the freedom to develop their own exams. Member Sue Melton-Malone (R-Waco) noted that the board can make adjustments to the rule at future meetings based on stakeholder feedback.

Members also approved changes to the Dyslexia Handbook, which members plan to adopt into rule. The board also gave formal approval to revised TEKS for Social Studies and the newly-renamed Ethnic Studies: Mexican American Studies course. Member Tom Maynard (R-Florence) led a discussion about branding the Permanent School Fund (PSF) in order to promote awareness of the fund among the general public. The board will hold a competition to invite students to come up with a logo.

The board approved four new charter school applicants, but not before Member Cortez raised significant concerns about the expansion of charters in general and the subsequent degradation in both funding for traditional ISDs and public school accountability. Finally, the board discussed the timeline for releasing the Long-Range Plan for Public Education. The next scheduled board meeting is in September.

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ATPE meets with lawmakers, congressional staff in Washington

ATPE 2017-18 State President Carl Garner and State Vice President Byron Hildebrand at the U.S. Capitol, June 11, 2018

Carl Garner, Rep. Beto O’Rourke, Jennifer Mitchell Canaday, and Byron Hildebrand in Washington, DC, June 12, 2018

A group of ATPE state leaders and lobbyists were in the nation’s capital this week to advocate for pro-public education legislation. ATPE State President Carl Garner, State Vice President Byron Hildebrand, and Governmental Relations Director Jennifer Mitchell Canaday joined ATPE’s Washington-based lobbyist David Pore for meetings with our Texas congressional delegation on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. Our visiting ATPE group held numerous productive meetings, including visits to the offices of U.S. Sen. John Cornyn and U.S. Representatives Kevin Brady, Beto O’Rourke, Henry Cuellar, Pete Olson, John Carter, Lloyd Doggett, Will Hurd, Roger Williams, and Jeb Hensarling.

Byron Hildebrand, Carl Garner, Rep. Kevin Brady, and Jennifer Mitchell Canaday at the U.S. Capitol, June 12, 2018

The bulk of ATPE’s discussions with our congressional delegation focused on the need to repeal and replace the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP) that reduces Social Security benefits for many educators and other public servants. Rep. Brady, who chairs the powerful U.S. House Ways and Means Committee, has been leading an effort to replace the WEP with a different formula that will provide Texas educators with Social Security benefits that are calculated in a more transparent, equitable, and predictable manner. Chairman Brady outlined his vision for a new plan to replace the WEP in a guest post for Teach the Vote back in November. ATPE’s team also visited this week with the staff of the Ways and Means Committee who are working on that new WEP legislation that is expected to be filed soon.

Hildebrand, Garner, Claire Sanderson from Sen. John Cornyn’s office, and ATPE contract lobbyist David Pore in Washington, DC, June 12, 2018

Other topics of discussion during this week’s meeting included school safety, maintaining funding for teacher preparation programs under Title II of the Higher Education Act, and preventing federal vouchers that would send public tax dollars to unregulated private schools. ATPE recently lobbied our congressional leaders to oppose an attempted amendment to a national defense bill that would have created an Education Savings Account voucher for students from military families. ATPE joined a number of military groups in opposing the amendment, which was recently ruled out of order and prevented from being added to the bill.

Hildebrand and Garner at the White House’s Truman Bowling Alley, June 11, 2018

During the trip to Washington, ATPE’s representatives also visited area museums, enjoyed a tour of the U.S. Capitol, and spent a special evening at the White House’s Truman Bowling Alley.

Carl Garner with Rep. Pete Olson in his Washington, DC office, June 13, 2018

 

 

Byron Hildebrand with his congressman, Rep. Henry Cuellar, June 13, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SBOE committee update: Dyslexia handbook

The three committees of the State Board of Education (SBOE) met Thursday morning to discuss items under the umbrella of school initiatives, instruction, and school finance/permanent school fund.

SBOE Committee on Instruction meeting June 14, 2018.

The Committee on Instruction began its meeting by considering changes to the rules regarding credit by examination (CBE), which was opposed by school administrators. Witnesses warned that some of the changes, such as the method of external validation, were infeasible. The committee ultimately amended the rules following a lengthy conversation with stakeholders.

The committee also approved amendments to the Dyslexia Handbook, which were proposed as a result of testimony received by special education advocates in April. The handbook is being adopted into state administrative rule in order to ensure all schools comply with the provisions contained within it. Witnesses on Thursday expressed concern over the ability of districts to create their own reading programs under the new rule. Other witnesses warned about the potential consequences of arbitrarily placing all dyslexic children in special education programs as opposed to Section 504. Member Tincy Miller (R-Dallas) urged staff to ensure a balanced approach in the handbook.

The full board is scheduled to meet again on Friday to wrap up its June meeting.

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SBOE initially approves Ethnic Studies: Mexican American Studies curriculum

The State Board of Education (SBOE) approved the initial Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for a course on Mexican American studies after amending the TEKS and name as a result of public testimony the board heard Tuesday.

SBOE meeting April 13, 2018.

On a motion by Member Georgina Perez (D-El Paso) and seconded by Member David Bradley (R-Beaumont), the board voted to change the proposed name from “Ethnic Studies: An Overview of Mexicans of American Descent” to “Ethnic Studies: Mexican American Studies.” Perez emphasized the lack of a hyphen in the new title, and explained the title would provide a consistent format for future courses focused on other ethnic groups.

Member Ruben Cortez (D-Brownsville) led the opposition to the name change, preferring to simply title the course “Mexican American Studies.” Member Tom Maynard (R-Florence) characterized the “Ethnic Studies” prefix as a sort of “area code” that implies the promise of more related courses in the future. Acknowledging the concerns raised Tuesday, the board unanimously approved the name change proposed by Perez.

Also Wednesday, the board approved requirements for instruction for a course on proper interaction with peace officers, which was created as a result of legislation passed during the 2017 legislative session, and adopted the long-term strategic asset allocation plan of the permanent school fund (PSF). The board’s three committees will meet Thursday, before the full board concludes its June meeting Friday morning.

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Morath suggests developing school safety building standards in SBOE update

The State Board of Education (SBOE) began its Wednesday meeting with a regularly scheduled update from Texas Education Agency (TEA) Commissioner Mike Morath. The commissioner touched on a lengthy list of issues, including the agency’s response to recent disasters.

SBOE hears update from TEA Commissioner Mike Morath on June 13, 2018.

The first item Morath discussed was the agency’s follow-up on the tragic school shooting in Santa Fe, Texas. The agency issued letter to administrators Friday apprising them of steps that could be immediately taken to improve school safety in the near term.

“There’s no such thing as perfect safety,” said Morath, adding, “But there are reasonable steps that can be taken.”

The commissioner acknowledged the difficulty and expense of securing more than 8,600 campuses across the state, but offered a list of specific steps the agency believes may be useful. These steps include increasing law enforcement support, and using more school marshals in rural schools where hiring more officers may not be an option. Training for marshals is now freely available all summer long, and likely will be for some time. Morath noted that teachers are not the only staff members who may be marshals. The commissioner acknowledged that marshals won’t be a useful option everywhere.

In addition, the agency recommended administrators review the threat assessment report compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in response to the Columbine shootings. Furthermore, districts are advised to coordinate with local law enforcement organizations to encourage officers to use schools for their restroom and break stops in order to increase the visible presence of law enforcement on campus.

The agency’s most recent action in response to Hurricane Harvey was the release of state accountability rating adjustments for districts impacted by the historic storm. In prior storms, schools at which classes were canceled for ten or more days were subject to a “not rated” provision. Due to scope of Hurricane Harvey, the criteria were expanded to include campuses that were relocated, campuses to which relocated students were transferred, and campuses where ten percent of students or staff were forced from their homes. These campuses will be labeled as “met standard” unless they were due to receive an “improvement required” rating. In those cases, campuses will be labeled “not rated.” Similar criteria were applied for district-level ratings.

The commissioner approved four new charter school applicants, which will be subject to the board’s approval this week. The four were the only applicants to advance from a pool of 21 interested parties. Morath compared the vetting process to that commonly employed by venture capital or angel investors. Member Ruben Cortez (D-Brownsville) expressed concern that one of the schools up for consideration plans to subject prospective students to criminal background checks. Cortez also criticized what he characterized as misleading marketing on the part of one applicant regarding teacher-student ratios.

Regarding assessments, Morath updated the board on what has been a frustrating year after what he called a “high-water mark” for successful test administration in 2017. Nearly 42,000 students who were testing online experienced a 20-minute connectivity slowdown in April, followed by a slowdown in May that affected roughly 59,000 students. This group of students will be taken into account in this year’s campus and district ratings. Morath waived 5th and 8th Grade student success initiative (SSI) requirements for affected students, but noted the commissioner does not have waiver authority over end-of-course (EOC) exams. Morath added it’s conceivable that some students may have been attempting to pass a third EOC after multiple retakes, but probably numbered fewer than a dozen. In response to the glitches, the agency has assessed liquidated damages in the amount of $100,000 to test administrator ETS.

The agency also released accountability rules for the “A through F” ratings framework under House Bill (HB) 22 and has made some changes based upon feedback from stakeholders. The agency doubled the weighting of high school graduation rates under Domain I: Student Achievement to 20 percent of the score. Under the career, college and military readiness (CCM-R) indicators, TEA added credit for the completion of dual credit courses and added partial credit for students who complete a coherent sequence of courses aligned with industry certification. The agency also adjusted the relative performance curve under Domain II: School Progress. Districts will be rated under the A-F system this year, and campus A-F ratings will be released in 2019.

Member Pat Hardy (R-Fort Worth) praised TEA for its response to both Hurricane Harvey and the Santa Fe shooting. Member Keven Ellis (R-Lufkin) asked about adapting mental health first aid training to students and adding it to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for health. Morath said educators are asking for more mental health training after the Santa Fe incident.

Member Ken Mercer (R-San Antonio) asked about schools using a single point of entry like airports, though acknowledging that strategy may not be effective in high schools, where students are often spread across multiple buildings. Morath told the board there is no one approach that can fix everything and solutions will depend heavily on local context. The commissioner expressed interest in convening architects and school administrators to develop recommended practices for the construction of safe school buildings, much like architects have developed for designating the environmental friendliness of buildings.

The board’s Wednesday agenda includes a review of the long-term strategic asset allocation plan for the permanent school fund (PSF).

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Senate committee talks school security programs

The Senate Select Committee on Violence in Schools and School Security met for the second day in a row Tuesday. While Monday’s hearing was dedicated to discussing school infrastructure and design that can help address school safety, Tuesday’s hearing centered around school security programs and resources. Invited testimony was primarily represented by law enforcement officers who discussed the following charge:

“Study school security options and resources, including, but not limited to, the school marshal program, school police officers, armed school personnel, the Texas School Safety Center, and other training programs to determine what improvements can be made to provide school districts and charter schools with more robust security options.”

In addition to representatives from various levels of law enforcement, invited testifiers included the director of the Texas School Safety Center, a superintendent, and a principal. All were there to highlight existing programs in Texas and offer other options. A considerable amount of time was spent on the School Marshal Program, which allows Texas school districts to appoint School Marshals on campuses who are authorized to carry firearms. On the School Marshal Program and other programs discussed, panelists emphasized strong training for participants.

One of the invited panelists, a retired principal from Friendswood ISD, also made a strong case for reducing class sizes in schools to address school safety. She highlighted what she has heard from educators in schools and what she knows from her own experience in the field: relationships are a key element of school safety and teachers cannot have meaningful one-on-one relationships with their students when there are 35 or more students in a classroom. She argued that reducing class sizes could improve the opportunity for teachers to really know and understand their students.

ATPE provided written testimony to the committee that highlighted relevant positions in our member-written-and-approved ATPE Legislative Program and pressed committee members to keep several things in mind as they continue these important discussions: (1) respect that the wishes of local school districts and their communities differ broadly based on local needs, (2) understand that adequate funding must accompany any proposals to address school safety, and (3) engage educators in the discussions as they continue.

Public testifiers included a number of Texas students and a big contingent of activists from the group Moms Demand Action, who were largely there to oppose the discussion around arming educators. The committee is not scheduled to meet again at this time, but future hearings are expected. Chairman Larry Taylor (R-Friendswood) said that the committee will host a meeting dedicated to mental health in July.

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SBOE hears public comments on ethnic studies course

The State Board of Education (SBOE) kicked off its week-long June meeting Tuesday taking public comment on several curriculum items.

The Texas SBOE kicks off its June, 2018, meeting with public testimony on social studies and economics TEKS.

The meeting began with a discussion on streamlining the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for social studies and economics. Members of the public raised concerns over the placement of the Holocaust in the TEKS, as well as concerns that the TEKS fail to properly credit slavery as the primary driver of secession leading up to the Civil War. Board Chair Donna Bahorich (R-Houston) explained that streamlining is defined by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) as deleting, confining, clarifying and narrowing the scope of TEKS. The board also heard competing arguments over the historical influence of the Bible and Judeo-Christian values on the nation’s founding documents.

The majority of testimony revolved around a new ethnic studies course approved by the board earlier this year. After dispute over textbooks for an innovative course on Mexican-American studies stretched over the course of several meetings, the board acknowledged advocates’ interest in a standardized course and approved the creation of statewide TEKS in April. At the same meeting, Member David Bradley (R-Beaumont) led members in designating the new course “Ethnic Studies: An Overview of Americans of Mexican Descent.” This was viewed as a slight by advocates, who expressed their disapproval Tuesday and requested the board designate the class “Mexican-American Studies,” as they had originally requested.

More than 40 people signed up to testify. The board could hold another vote on the name Wednesday at the earliest, and members still have the option of changing the name at a later meeting regardless of what happens this week.

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Police, architects testify in Senate school safety hearing

The Senate Select Committee on Violence in Schools and School Security began its first hearing Monday with a moment of silence for the victims of school shootings. Chaired by Senate Education Committee Chair Larry Taylor (R-Friendswood), the select committee was assigned by Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick after Gov. Greg Abbott released a list of school safety proposals, many of which would require legislative action.

The select committee is composed of six Republicans and three Democrats, and is scheduled to meet Monday and Tuesday to discuss potential ways to prevent future school shootings like the one in Santa Fe, Texas. Monday’s agenda included considering testimony on the following:

“Improve the infrastructure and design of Texas schools to reduce security threats, and discuss various proposals to harden school facilities, including limiting access points, improving screening and detecting of weapons, retrofitting school facilities with improved locks, emergency alarm systems, and monitoring cameras.”

Texas Education Agency (TEA) Commissioner Mike Morath was the first witness invited to testify, and briefed members on steps the agency has taken to improve school safety. Morath noted that Santa Fe ISD was in fact one of 186 districts that received a special designation for going above and beyond school safety requirements. The commissioner added the agency has secured $62 million in additional federal funding under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), which it is directing toward school safety. Morath noted that TEA lacks the authority to implement many of the governor’s proposals without specific instructions from the legislature. The state will also compete for a fraction of $75 million available through a nationally competitive grant from the U.S. Department of Justice.

State Sen. Charles Schwertner (R-Georgetown) discussed legislation he passed during the 2017 legislative session to provide training for school staff to identify students who may be experiencing or at risk of a mental health crisis. Sen. John Whitmire (D-Houston) expressed interest in this idea, albeit while expressing a concern that students’ private mental health records remain confidential. Sen. Royce West (D-Dallas) asked members to evaluate the current state of mental health services in Texas and consider whether adequate resources are in place.

Asked by Sen. Brandon Creighton (R-Conroe) whether the legislature should expand the agency’s authority to implement some of the governor’s proposals, Morath hesitated to offer an opinion. The commissioner ultimately stated that TEA is weak both in terms of capacity and regulatory authority when it comes to school safety. Morath testified TEA has only one quarter of one full-time equivalent staff member dedicated to school safety.

State Sen. Eddie Lucio, Jr. (D-Brownsville) suggested that local school boards are too fractious to make many school safety decisions, and suggested that TEA study the cost of implementing airport-style checkpoints in schools statewide.

The next invited witness was Christopher Huckabee, who chairs the Texas Society of Architects School Safety Workgroup. Huckabee explained how campus architecture has changed in response to school shootings going back to Columbine, such as efforts to push the public back from campus buildings and direct visitors through a single entrance. Huckabee testified that fire codes are very specific when it comes to having multiple entrances and exits for students and staff. He explained, “Even the best hardened campus are not perfect scenarios in this regard.” Chairman Taylor suggested that fire codes may need to be revisited, and the focus may need to shift away from fire safety. Sen. West asked about distinguishing between fire alarms and lockdown alarms, and Huckabee suggested schools could use an app to communicate emergency alerts via mobile devices.

Sen. Joan Huffman (R-Houston) contended that implementing metal detectors is the only surefire way to prevent guns from being brought into schools in the first place. Huckabee stated the challenge to districts would primarily be one of resources, and warned students may still find ways to get around metal detectors. Chair Taylor pointed out that congestion resulting from metal detectors may create a new potential target in a large group of students awaiting entry.

San Antonio ISD Police Chief Joe Curiel led off a panel of law enforcement officers, and testified with regard to training and procedures currently in place. Chief Curiel mandated child crisis intervention training (CCIT) for all SAISD officers, which involves talking with students and building relationships in order to identify potential issues early on. Chief Curiel testified he believes identifying potential shooters is all about human intelligence.

Chair Taylor asked about the ability of law enforcement to track students’ social media accounts. Chief Curiel indicated that an officer is dedicated to assessing social media posts, but not necessarily monitoring all accounts.

Sen. Lucio asked Chief Curiel his position on whether teachers should carry guns, and how officers would respond if they encountered an armed teacher during an active shooting. Chief Curiel indicated he is neutral on the issue, but warned that “things could go wrong” if officers encountered someone who is armed when the shooter had not been identified yet. The chief also cautioned against viewing metal detectors as the sole solution, and repeated that human intelligence is the key.

“We can fortify our campuses all we want, but that does not guarantee a weapon will not be carried in,” said Chief Curiel.

Sen. Creighton pushed Chief Curiel for a firmer answer on whether adding armed teachers to the mix would save lives, providing that they were well-trained and potentially from a military or law enforcement background. Chief Curiel repeated his concern that responding officers, in particular those who don’t work at the school, would not immediately know the difference between the teacher and the active shooter.

“Having people armed within the campus would have to require a lot of training and the coordination effort that takes place when a situation like that takes place,” said Chief Curiel.

Pressed by Sen. Kelly Hancock (R-North Richland Hills) to take a position on whether the potential of facing armed staff would be more of a deterrent than the baseline prohibition against firearms other than those carried by law enforcement officers, Chief Curiel stated that an individual who has determined to carry out a school shooting is not in a rational mental state and would likely make their decision without regard to district firearm policy. Chief Curiel emphasized that the department is neutral on the issue of arming teachers, and would adjust their policies and procedures to accommodate any decision the local board of trustees decides to take.

Midway ISD School Resource Officer Jeff Foley testified on the behalf of the Texas Association of School Resource Officers, and told members that programs to arm teachers, such as the school marshals program, may be beneficial to rural districts where law enforcement may not be able to quickly respond. On the other hand, he expressed concern over such programs in urban and suburban schools that have law enforcement personnel assigned to the campus.

Mike Matranga, Executive Director for Security and School Safety at Texas City ISD, said no school can be 100 percent secured. More importantly, he said, is addressing students’ mental health needs. Matranga indicated he believes the larger issue is one of weakening social values, a lack of personal responsibility and children lacking appropriate avenues to channel their frustration. Matranga suggested that many civilian school boards lack the expertise to make the most informed decisions regarding school security, and opined that hiring an additional police officer would be better than a school marshal. Matranga contended teachers play a different, albeit equally important, role.

“Our teachers are our first line of defense,” said Matranga, emphasizing the role of teachers in identifying kids who are having problems. Yet pointing to the state of school funding, Matranga acknowledged that the state is asking teachers to do more each year without adequate compensation.

Public testimony began with metal detector industry respresentatives. Their testimony focused on the real and perceived benefits of metal detectors, such as their potential to discourage potential criminals. One witness argued that x-ray machines are a larger cause of congestion than metal detectors, which can come in the form of either walkthrough units or handheld wands. The speed of detection can vary depending upon sensitivity and the procedure used for checking people who set off alerts.

The committee will meet again Tuesday morning to consider the following charge:

“Improve the infrastructure and design of Texas schools to reduce security threats, and discuss various proposals to harden school facilities, including limiting access points, improving screening and detecting of weapons, retrofitting school facilities with improved locks, emergency alarm systems, and monitoring cameras.”

Members will hear invited testimony on these topics, and members of the public will be limited to two minutes of testimony.

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